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Cargoes. Difference between bulk cargoes and general cargoes

Cargoes carried by ships are of two kinds: bulk cargoes and general cargoes. Bulk cargoes may be either solid (grain, ore, coal, green sugar, sulphur) or liquid (oil products, wine, fresh water, spirits). All bulk cargoes are usually shipped in bulk without tare. General cargoes represent various goods differently packed. Goods packed in bags, cases, bales and drums are considered as general cargoes. For example, if green sugar is shipped in the hold without tare, in bulk, it is a bulk cargo and if it is packed in bags, we can consider it as general cargo.
Cargoes. Difference between bulk cargoes and general cargoes
It frequently happens that some varieties of cargo are carried on deck. It is to be understood that in this case "on deck" means on an uncovered space and that the cargo is exposed to weather.

Many classes of dangerous goods, such as acids and gas cylinders are carried on deck. Small consignments of goods which may damage other cargo are also given deck stowage. Cargo carried on deck is shipped at "shipper's risk", unless contracted otherwise, and Bills of Lading are qualified accordingly, but nevertheless responsibility falls upon the ship to counteract to any possibility of loss and damage. 

Proper means of fastening the cargo must be provided by lashings; protection from the sun and weather can be obtained by the use of tarpaulins where necessary for certain cargoes. All reasonable amounts of wooden dunnage must be laid to provide drainage courses.

Units of especially heavy cargo are frequently carried on deck. Locomotives, lorries, crates of heavy machinery such as transformers and extremely large lengths of heavy timber (logs) find suitable stowage on deck. These cargoes will require wire and chain lashings connected to ring bolts and provided with bottle screws for tightening and shoring with timber, and the building of cradles and beds.