Showing posts with label measuring. Show all posts
Showing posts with label measuring. Show all posts


Measuring insulation resistance on ships. Factors affecting Insulation Resistance

A part from the fact that good insulation resistance is an essential condition for maintaining service, the regular recording of insulation resistance values is undoubtedly the best method of detecting deterioration and of indicating when remedial action is desirable, or perhaps essential, in order to prevent complete failure.

Measuring insulation resistance on ships

Insulation resistance (IR) should accordingly be measured and recorded at regular intervals, the recording being preferably on a separate log-sheet for each important machine or circuit, so that each fresh reading can be compared with previous values and any downward trend immediately observed. It cannot be too strongly emphasised that, subject of course to reasonable minimum values being maintained, trends are more important than actual values; a single value is of comparatively little significance. The intelligent interpretation of results is therefore of great importance and a general appreciation of the factors involved is essential.


A-C Indicating Meters

The moving iron-vane type is the most common a-c meter. In it induced eddy currents are used to produce magnetic force on a structure bearing a pivoted pointer and a thin iron element called a vane. The vane has no coil. The stationary magnetic field is produced by a single current-carrying coil surrounding both the fixed metal element and the pointer movement. This coil is so arranged that its own field induces a field in the moving vane and in addition generates attractive or repulsive magnetic forces with respect to its own self-produced magnetic field. Deflection is basically proportional to the current through the main coil.

Moving iron-vane meters usually have relatively low impedance and are simple and inexpensive. They measure either voltage or current, but their use must be restricted to the frequency for which they are designed.

Rectifier type meters utilize PM d-c movements actuated by current developed from rectifying the applied a-c being measured. Rectifier elements mounted within the meter case may be copper oxide, selenium, germanium, or silicon. The developed d-c is proportional to the applied a-c while the rectifiers and associated circuitry are designed for operation over as wide a band of frequency as possible.


Indicating D-C Meters

Fundamentally, all meters measure current and in this sense are ammeters. When they have low internal resistance so as to produce no effect on a circuit's performance and are actuated through direct connection in series with the main current path, they are truly ammeters.

When they have high resistance so that they may be placed in shunt or directly across a voltage source they are called voltmeters. Their indication of voltage is based on the product of a known, calibrated internal resistance in series with the meter movement, and the current flowing through that resistance.


Basic Electrical Measuring Instruments

1. In the field of electricity, as well as in all other physical sciences, accurate quantitative measurements are essential. This involves two important items — numbers and units. Simple arithmetic is used in most cases, and the units are well defined and easily understood. The standard units are those of current, voltage and resistance.

Basic Electrical Measuring Instruments
2.  The operator commonly works with ammeters, voltmeters and electron-tube analyzers; but he may also have many occasions to use watt meters, watt-hour meters, power-factor meters, synchroscopes, frequency meters and capacitance-resistance-inductance bridges.

3. Electrical equipment is designed to operate at certain efficiency levels. A good understanding of the functional design and operation of electrical instruments is important. In electrical service work one or more of the following methods are commonly used to determine if the circuits of an equipment are operating properly.

a) Use an ammeter to measure the amount of current flowing in a circuit.
b) Use a voltmeter to determine the voltage existing between two points.
c) Use an ohmmeter or megger to measure circuit continuity and total or partial circuit resistance.

4. It may also be necessary to employ a wattmeter to determine the to tal power being consumed by certain equipment. If we wish to measure the energy consumed by certain equipment or certain circuits, a watt-hour or kilowatt-hour meter is used.

5. For measuring other quantities such as power factor and frequency it is necessary to employ the appropriate instruments. In each case the instrument indicates the value of the quantity measured, and in this information helps to understand the way the circuit is operating.

6. Occasionally the operator will need to determine the value of a capacitor or an inductor. Inductance or capacitance bridges may be employed for this purpose.

7. A thorough understanding of the construction, operation and limitati ons of the basic types of electrical measuring instruments, coupled with the theory of circuit operation is most essential in servicing and maintaining electrical equipment.